Humulus japonicus (HJ) is a widely used herbal remedy in Asia with anti-oxidative, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effect of HJ therapeutic potential in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) used a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). CIA rats given 300 mg / kg orally HJ starting 3 days before the second immunization.
Clinical and histopathologic findings assessed in the rat paw CIA. Levels of autoantibodies and inflammatory markers are determined in plasma and cell culture supernatant, respectively. Expression at mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. HJ significantly decrease arthritic score dirty and foot swelling in CIA mice. Furthermore, synovial inflammation, cartilage damage and bone erosion that is markedly reduced by HJ.
It also decreased the expression of inflammatory enzymes in both paws of rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, the expression of genes associated with all pro-inflammatory macrophages and M1 macrophages significantly decreased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage markers was significantly increased in the claws HJ-treated mice CIA. In addition, HJ reduced plasma levels of anti-type II collagen antibody following the decreased expression of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2-associated cell surface markers and cytokines in the claws.
HJ also significantly inhibited the expression of IL-6 both in vitro and in vivo, followed by a reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation and expression in rat paw CIA. Finally, the expression of genes associated with decreased osteoclast on HJ-treated rat paw CIA. These findings indicate that the HJ can play a role in suppressing the development of the CIA with the overall regulatory articular inflammation. These studies should provide new insights into the use of the HJ as a natural product effective therapy for RA.
Repeat-Dose Toxicity Studies AFPL1-Conjugate Vaccine Using Nicotine in male Sprague Dawley rats.
Tobacco smoking is the cause of 20% of deaths in Canada per year. Nicotine vaccine presents a promising alternative to traditional smoking cessation products, but until now, no vaccine has been able to move through all phases of clinical trials.
We have previously demonstrated that nicotine AFPL1-conjugate vaccine does not cause systemic or immunotoxicity in this mouse model and that heterologous vaccination approach is more profitable than these homologous to stimulate mucosal and systemic antibody anti-nicotine.
The purpose of this study was to confirm the safety profile of the vaccine in the repeated-dose toxicity studies. Heterologous vaccination strategy re-used, and Sprague-Dawley rats given a dose five times greater than in our previous studies.
Description: Avidin is a basic charged glycoprotein present in the egg white and in some extent in tissues of various animals. Avidin is a homotetrameric protein that contains 4 identical subunits which bind to Biotin with high extent of affinity and specificity consisting of 128 amino acids and has a molecular mass of about 67K Daltons. ;Avidin-Biotin is a modified form of affinity purified avidin that combines the high affinity specific activity of the native egg white avidin to biotin molecule together with a very low background of the streptavidin produced by the bacteria Streptomyces avidinii.
Goat Anti-Human IgM, Fc (5u specific), Affinity Purified (Bulk)
physiological conditions, food and water consumption, body temperature, inflammation of the injection site, relative organ weights, histopathology, and blood chemistry and hematology were evaluated during the vaccination period to determine the safety of the vaccine. AFPL1 nicotine-conjugate vaccine does not induce clinically relevant changes or induces symptoms that would be associated with toxicity, making it a promising candidate for future investigations.